AI KHANOUM PDF

However, what made this settlement, known as Ai-Khanoum (‘Lady Moon’ in Uzbek), special was the fact that it would not have looked out of. The Spatial Organization of Ai Khanoum, a Greek. City in Afghanistan. LAuriAnne MArTinez-Sève. ArTiCLe. Abstract. The excavations of the Greek settlement of. The ruins of an ancient fortified city close to the village of Ai Khanum / Ai Khanoum in northern Afghanistan (and east of the city of Balkh) are thought to be the.

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Ai-Khanoum – Travel guide at Wikivoyage

American Journal of Archaeology However, modern historians have largely dismissed this argument. Statue of an khanoumm man, from the gymnasium. Ai-Khanoum was likely affected as many nomadic invasions passed through across through the Hindu Kush passes.

In some cases, only the hands and feet would be made in marble. By use ng these double adjectives you give the impression that these two identities were distinct and separate Like Like. The findings are of considerable importance, as no remains of the Greco-Bactrian and Indo-Greek civilizations had been uncovered in the East beyond the abundant coinage until this discovery, which led some to speak of a “Bactrian mirage.

The entire region is littered with them. Altogether, six such Indian-standard silver drachmas in the name of Agathocles were discovered khanojm Ai-Khanoum in Safeguarding the Bactrian Treasure. The development of sedentary and nomadic civilizations: The Seleucid Empire was arguably the greatest khanum the Successor states, at its height encompassing almost all of the former Persian empire, with the notable exception of Egypt.

The citadel in the south, which is on a 60 m high loess-covered natural mound, has not been investigated yet, although it must have had massive walls and high towers. Numerous Seleucid coins were thus reattributed to the Ai-Khanoum mint rather recently, with the conclusion that Ai-Khanoum was probably a larger minting center than even Bactra. Architectural antefixae with Hellenistic ” Flame palmette ” design, Ai-Khanoum. There is evidence of huge fires in all the ak buildings of the city.

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The city became rich because it controlled the trade in lapis lazuli, but it was also situated on the Hkanoum road. Retrieved from ” https: Ai-Khanoum may have been the city in which Eucratides was besieged by Demetriusbefore he successfully managed to escape to ultimately conquer India Justin.

Since the sandal of the foot fragment bears the symbolic depiction of Zeus ‘ thunderboltthe statue is thought to have been a smaller version of the Statue of Zeus at Olympia. Its location at the junction between Bactrian territory and nomad territories to the north, ultimately allowed access to commerce with the Chinese empire.

This suggests important trade contacts with the Mediterranean, through long and expensive land routes.

Ai-Khanoum: A Greek city in north-east Afghanistan

The same symbol was used on various Seleucid eastern coins, suggesting that they were probably minted in Ai-Khanoum. Email required Address never made public. Various sculptural fragments were also found, in a rather conventional, classical style, rather impervious to the Hellenizing innovations occurring at the same time in the Mediterranean world.

After all, Alexander famously began adopting Persian dress and elements of Persian court culture in khanohm years khanouum his death, much to the resentment of his followers. The region in which it was located, Bactria, represented the eastern ia of the empire. Antefix khanooum the administrative palace. These are the first known representations of Vedic deities on coins, and they display early Avatars of Vishnu: The city’s wealth attracted enemies, and it was sacked by Sacae nomads in c.

The mission unearthed various structures, some of them perfectly Hellenistic, some other integrating aj of Au architecture:. It was during this expedition that he stumbled across the remains of an ancient settlement. Possibly, this was a refoundation of an older, Persian city, and was settled with Greek and Iranian veterans, together with native serfs: They are Indian-standard square coins bearing the representations of Indian deities, which have been variously interpreted as VishnuShivaVasudevaBuddha or Balarama.

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Due to the lack of proper stones for sculptural work in the area of Ai-Khanoum, unbaked clay and stucco modeled on a wooden frame were often used, a technique which khhanoum become widespread in Central Asia and the East, especially in Buddhist art.

Many Seleucid and Bactrian coins were found at Ai-Khanoum, as were ten blank planchetsindicating that there was a mint in the city. Previous scholars have argued that Ai Khanoum was founded in the late 4th century BC, following the conquests of Alexander the Great. Perhaps most importantly, Ai-Khanoum was perfectly positioned to act as a trade hub with the Indian subcontinent via established trade zi through the Hindu Kush.

From literary sources, we can deduce that an Alexandria on the Oxus or: During these decades, Ai-Khanoum continued to grow in importance in its role as a trade hub with India. Ai-Khanoum was one such settlement. It is not clear exactly how Ai-Khanoum was destroyed, but archaeologists suggest it was totally abandoned by BCE and there is evidence of huge fires in all the major buildings in the city. Atash Bahram Modern Temples: Examples of the Bactrian Gold Ornaments.

China Sugd Uzbekistan Sugd Tajikistan 3.

A few years after the foundation of the city, around BC, the Indian Emperor Ashoka was carving a rock inscription in Greek and Aramaic addressed to the Greeks in the region, the Kandahar Edict of Ashokain the nearby city of Kandahar. Ai Khanum with the Amu Darya River in the background.

With the Seleucids focused on the ongoing jostling with the other Successor states in the west, the Greco-Bactrians were able to expand their influence in the east.

Ruins at Yemshi Tepe. Alexander Hamer 5 Comments. Media Babylon Khnoum Rawlinson: