JOMINY HARDENABILITY TEST. Objective. To study hardness as a function of quench rate and investigate the hardenability of steels. Introduction. PDF | The Jominy end-quench test is used to measure the hardenability of a steel , which is a measure of the capacity of the steel to harden in depth under a. The Jominy end-quench test is used to measure the hardenability of a steel, which is a measure of the capacity of the steel to harden in depth.

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There are yest complex interactions between the different elements, which also affect the temperatures of the phase transformation and the resultant microstructure. Measurement of hardenability Uses of Jominy data: Jominy end quench unit for testing the hardenability of steels. At higher carbon levels, the formation of martensite is depressed to lower temperatures and the transformation from austenite to martensite may be incomplete, leading to retained austenite.

James Marrow University of Cambridge Content development: This requires the addition of “gettering” elements such as aluminium and titanium to react preferentially with the oxygen and nitrogen in the steel. Select the plot of hardness variation along the test specimen that best describes their behaviour. Select the most appropriate steel to achieve the necessary levels of mechanical properties, residual stress and distortion in an injection moulding die for a mobile phone plastic case.

The main alloying elements which affect hardenability are carbon, boron and a group of elements including Cr, Mn, Mo, Si and Ni.

Three medium carbon steels 0. Steel compositions are sometimes described in terms of a carbon equivalent which describes the magnitude of the effect of all of the elements on hardenability.

Boron has a very strong affinity for oxygen and nitrogen, with which it forms compounds.

DoITPoMS – TLP Library The Jominy End Quench Test

Increasing the austenite grain size therefore decreases the available nucleation sites, which retards the rate of the phase transformation. The results are plotted in the graph below.


The effect of boron is also independent of the amount of boron, provided sufficient is added, and the effect of boron is greatest at lower carbon contents. By using hardenabilith site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

The Jominy End Quench Test

Jominy served as president of ASM in For example, any video clips and answers to questions are missing. You have three steels.

It should not be confused with hardnesswhich is a measure of a sample’s resistance to indentation or scratching. The hardness number is usually denoted by HV20 for H ardness V ickers 20 kg, for example. Carbon controls the hardness of the martensite. This describes the ability of the steel to be hardened in depth by quenching.

This results in a progressive decrease in the rate of cooling along the bar from the quenched end. Click on the circled data points to see how the microstructure varies with distance from the quenched end. Data from the Jominy end quench test can be used to determine whether a particular steel can be sufficiently hardened in different quenching media, for different section diameters.

The hardness variation along the test surface is a result of microstructural variation which arises since the cooling rate decreases with distance from the quenched end.

The Jominy End Quench Test

The test sample is quickly transferred to the test machine, where it is hardenabilitg vertically and sprayed with a controlled flow of water onto one end of the sample. This alternative longer video clip contributed by Oxford Brookes University shows both the transfer of the sample from furnace to Jominy machine, and the jet spraying one end of the sample.

These include alloying elements and grain size. Harxenability of En 24 at 10 cm position along Jominy bar, furthest from the quenched end. The resultant microstructure is quite coarse, with reduced toughness and ductility. The Rockwell hardness of a metal can also be determined using a similar technique.

Slower cooling rates occur at the core of larger components, compared to the faster cooling rate hareenability the surface. There are different scales for the Rockwell hardness test. The hardenability of a metal alloy is the depth to which a material is hardened after putting it through a heat treatment process.


Substances like brine and water cool the steel much more quickly than oil or air. Here a specimen is in place. The initial red-hot state represents the austenitic condition and the subsequent cooling results in a variety of transformations that depend on the chemical composition of the steel. Take a sample from the furnace and place it on the Jominy test fixtures and harcenability the cooling pattern. En 8 is a low hardenability steel when compared with En The indentor is either a conical diamond pyramid, or a hardened steel ball.

The Rockwell hardness test measures a number which depends on the difference in the depth hareenability an indentation made by two loads, a minor load followed by a major load. The geometry of the part also affects the cooling rate: High carbon steels are prone to distortion and cracking during heat treatment, and can be difficult to machine in the annealed condition before heat treatment.

The graph below gives the Jominy end quench data in terms of the Rockwell hardness number. A high hardenability is required for through hardening of large components.

Jominy End Quench Test

Boron can therefore only affect the hardenability of steels if it is in solution. The hardenability of ferrous alloys, i.

In this heat flow simulation you can adjust various parameters and observe the effect on the heat flow and cooling of the specimen. This information is plotted on a hardenability graph. Retrieved 9 December The austenite grain size can be affected by other stages in the processing of steel, and therefore the hardenability of a steel also depends on the previous stages employed in its production.